What Is A Gantry Crane?

Gantry crane is a sort of bridge crane with a horizontal bridge set on two legs to form the shape of a gantry. The crane runs on the ground track and is mainly used in open storage yards, docks, power stations, ports and railway cargo stations for handling and installation operations. The use of the gantry crane greatly reduces the labor intensity of workers, improves the operating conditions and working efficiency.

Types of Gantry Cranes

Gantry crane can be classified in many different ways.

According to usage, it can be divided into general purpose gantry crane, container gantry crane, hydropower station gantry crane, shipyard gantry crane, etc. In civil engineering construction, the general purpose gantry cranes are more commonly used.

According to the lifting device, it can be divided into hook gantry crane, grab gantry crane, electromagnetic gantry crane, dual-purpose or three-purpose gantry crane.

According to the form of travelling mechanism, it can be divided into rail mounted gantry crane and rubber tyred gantry crane.

According to the structure of the main beam, it can be divided into box beam gantry crane and truss gantry crane.

According to the number of the main beam, it can be divided into single beam and double beam gantry crane.

According to the number of cantilever, it can be divided into double cantilever gantry crane, single cantilever gantry crane, non-cantilever gantry crane, etc.

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Applications of Gantry Cranes

Gantry cranes can be used in various industries:

  • Equipment manufacturing and processing
  • Assembly of power plant equipment
  • Cement frame prefabrication
  • Loading and unloading in railway freight yards
  • Lifting hulls in shipyards
  • Lifting sluice gates at hydropower station dams
  • Loading and unloading containers at port terminals
  • Lifting and handling bulky pieces inside the factory
  • Carrying out construction operations at building installation sites
  • Stacking wood in log yards
  • And more

Gantry Crane Components

Gantry crane is composed of metal structure, lifting mechanism, trolley travelling mechanism, gantry crane travelling mechanism, electrical and control system.

Metal structure is mainly composed of bridge frame, legs, cab, etc. The main beam is used to support the trolley. Small gantry cranes usually use single beam, and large-capacity gantry cranes use double beams. For large gantry cranes, rigid legs are generally used on one side and flexible legs on the other side to reduce its own weight and compensate for span errors.

Trolley of the double girder gantry crane is basically the same as the bridge crane. Single girder gantry crane often uses electric hoist, and the hook needs to be placed on the outside of the main beam.

Gantry crane travelling mechanism is mostly driven separately. For open-air operation, the lower part of the crane leg is equipped with a rail clamp. When the gantry crane is not working or there is strong wind, use the rail clamp to clamp the track in order to prevent the crane from being blown by the wind and causing accidents.

The cab is where the operator operates the crane. There are strict requirements for the operator. They should be familiar with the use of gantry cranes, operating methods, lifting capacity, maintenance knowledge, etc.

How to Choose The Right Gantry Crane

Here are some tips to help you choose the right gantry crane for your business:

  • Determine single girder or double girder

Generally, when the lifting weight is below 50t, the span is within 35m, and there is no special use requirement, a single girder gantry crane should be used. If heavy and long parts are often lifted, the working speed is high, then the double girder gantry crane should be selected.

  • Determine the span

The span of the gantry crane is an important factor affecting the weight of the crane itself. Under the premise of meeting the equipment use conditions and the span series standards, the span should be minimized.

  • Determine the track

The determination of the track needs to follow several principles: 1) It can meet the stability requirements of the gantry along the crane track direction. 2) The external dimensions of the cargo must be able to pass through the legs smoothly. 3) Make the wheelbase B and the span S proportional to a certain ratio, generally take the wheelbase B=(1/4-1/6)S.

  • Determination of the distance between the gantry crane

There should be a certain space between the external dimensions of the gantry crane and the cargo and transportation vehicle access to facilitate loading and unloading operations. Generally, when loading and unloading within the span, transportation vehicles should maintain a distance of more than 0.7m from the legs. The lifting device should have a distance of more than 0.5m from the transport vehicle when it is not working. There should have a distance of more than 0.5m when the cargo passes through the legs.

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